A masterpiece of Ukrainian park construction // Construction and architecture.
A masterpiece of Ukrainian park construction // Construction and architecture.
And they are very necessary for the restoration, arrangement and maintenance of the ensemble of monuments.
Let us pay attention to the following: so far none of the state historical and cultural reserves of Ukraine’s palace and park profile has been awarded the status of a national priest. This is an obvious gap that needs to be filled. In our opinion, the Kachanivsky Reserve, given its history, size and fairly good preservation of both the park and the main architectural structures, has every reason to acquire national status.
In addition, it is worth noting the opinion repeatedly expressed by experts to turn Kachaniv Palace and Park into a country government residence of a representative nature – like the American Camp David, the French castles of the Loire, numerous estates near Moscow or the British Windsor Castle. In a word, this pearl of palace and park architecture of Ukraine will bury the owner, not poorer than those who created this miracle.
1. Chernihiv region: Encyclopedic reference book. – K., 1990. – P. 298-300.
2. Monuments and construction and architecture of the Ukrainian SSR: In 4 – K., 1986. – Vol. 4. – P. 294 – 299.
3. Novgorodov VE, Nelgovsky Yu.Yu., Podgora VP On the restoration of the Kachanov Palace // Construction and Architecture. – 1976. – No. 4- P. 33.
4. Olekhno A. A masterpiece of Ukrainian park construction // Construction and architecture. – 1987. – No. 9. – P.7-9.
Culture of Mesopotamia: Babylonia, Assyria
For centuries after the collapse of the Pharaoh’s empire, the stone communities of the pyramids and the ruins of the grand temples amazed the imagination of the new masters of the Nile, reminding us that there once flourished the great culture of Mesopotamia.
Babylonia. To the east of Egypt, only the hills, which harmonize little with the general landscape of the Tigris and Euphrates valleys, sometimes aroused the interest of travelers, so, perhaps, clay shards – frequent finds of the Arabs – covered with some signs like " bird’s footprints on wet sand. "
Meanwhile, in Mesopotamia, in present-day Iraq, in very distant times, a culture as high as in Egypt has emerged and established itself, which has played no less a role in human history.
Until the last century, the once mighty Babylonian kingdom and the great Assyrian state were known only from the Bible and from the writings of Herodotus and some other ancient authors. There were states and nations that shed a lot of blood in endless wars, that built a lot and obviously prospered in a lot of 123helpme.me knowledge, but what their culture was and what it gave to humanity remained unclear. Because the descendants did not dispose of any monuments of this culture, except for burnt clay tablets with incomprehensible signs.
The French Consul in Mosul, Paul-Emile Botta, is honored with the first archaeological discovery in the Mesopotamia. When he learned that he was interested in these strange tablets, an Arab told him that there were many of them in his village, where they had long been used for economic hardship. Botta organized excavations on a hill near the village indicated by the Arabs and found under the rubbish and earth not only shards, but entire walls and reliefs depicting some amazing animals. Thus were discovered the ruins of the Assyrian royal palace.
Bicentennial was poor in stone, and therefore built there of brick. Brick buildings perished over time.
Unlike the Nile Valley, where for three millennia one people lived and one state existed, in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys one state was replaced by another, different peoples fought among themselves, and the victors usually destroyed temples, fortresses and cities of the vanquished.
Finally, Babylon, not protected from the outside like Egypt by impassable sands, was often subjected to hostile invasions that ravaged the country. So many great works of art perished and a great culture was forgotten.
Peoples of different origins, who were at enmity with each other in the Mesopotamia, created several cultures, and yet their art as a whole is marked by common features that deeply distinguish them from the Egyptian.
The art of the ancient peoples of southern Mesopotamia is commonly referred to as Babylonian art; this name extends to the name not only of Babylon itself (beginning of the second millennium BC), but also of the never independent Sumerian-Akkadian states (IV-III millennium BC), then united by Babylon. Because the Babylonian culture can be considered a direct successor of the Sumerian-Akkadian culture.
Like the culture of Egypt and probably around the same time, this culture emerged in the Mesopotamia in the late Neolithic again in connection with the rationalization of agriculture. If Egypt, in the words of Herodotus, is a gift of the Nile, then Babylon should be recognized as a gift of the Tigris and Euphrates, because the spring floods of these years leave a layer of silt fertile for the soil.
And here the primitive communal system gradually changed to slavery. However, in Mesopotamia for a long time there was no single state governed by a single despotic government. Such power was established in individual city-states, which were constantly at war with each other over watering the fields, through slaves and cattle. Initially, this power was entirely in the hands of the priesthood.
Religion in Mesopotamia was the mainstay of the slave-owning elite. However, this top itself was not stable, because the rule was constantly shifting from one city-state to another. Not a funeral cult, not a dream to continue in the afterlife all the benefits of life together with the authorities, inspired the teachings of the Sumerian-Akkadian priests. The fierce struggle without mercy for the vanquished determined the worldview of the local earthly lords, who introduced it into the consciousness of their subjects.
Death is inevitable, and death is terrible. The hero of the ancient Babylonian epic, the brave and invincible Gilgamesh, "a god for two-thirds, a man for one-third," finds immortality but cannot take advantage of it because in the realm of the dead the "grass of youth "is eaten by the serpent.
Images of funeral scenes cannot be found in Babylonian art. All the thoughts, all the aspirations of the Babylonian – in the reality that opens his life. But life is not sunny, not flourishing, but a life full of mysteries, based on struggle, a life that depends on the will of higher powers, good perfumes and evil demons, who also wage a ruthless struggle.
The cult of water and the cult of celestial bodies played a huge role in the beliefs of the ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia. The cult of water – on the one hand, as a good force, a source of fertility, and on the other hand – as a force of evil, ruthless, apparently repeatedly devastated these lands (as in ancient Jewish legends, the formidable legend of the flood is a striking coincidence and Sumerian legends). The cult of celestial bodies – as a manifestation of the divine will.
Only a priest could answer all the questions, teach to live without encountering evil perfumes, proclaim the divine will. And indeed, the priests knew a lot – so the testimony of the Babylonian doctrine, born in a priestly environment. In mathematics, necessary for the revival of trade in the cities of Mesopotamia, for the construction of dams and redistribution of fields, great progress has been made. The Babylonian sixty-year number system is still alive today in our minutes and seconds.
Significantly ahead of the Egyptians, Babylonian astronomers prospered in observing celestial bodies: "goats," that is, planets, and "calm sheep grazing," that is, motionless stars; they calculated the laws of rotation of the sun, moon, and repetitive eclipses. But all their scientific knowledge and research was associated with magic and divination. The stars, the constellations, as well as the entrails of the sacrificed animals, had to unravel the future. Spells, conspiracies and magic formulas were known only to priests and astrologers. And so their wisdom was revered as charming, as if supernatural.
Mysterious signs on burnt clay tiles were deciphered in the last century. This is the famous Sumerian cuneiform, which marked the beginning of all writing, is very decorative and has its origins in drawings.
Terrible deeds took place on this earth. In ancient times, as confirmed by excavations, there were human sacrifices, wild massacres were arranged, apparently at the behest of priests to appease the gods.
And yet, in this world so far from us, wild fanaticism and superstition were often combined with a very sober outlook on life, sometimes with astonishing skepticism, and even with true wisdom.
We have received a record of a trial in Sumer on the charge of his wife’s complicity in the murder of her husband. The evidence was found to be insufficient and she escaped execution. After studying this text, modern lawyers came to the conclusion that the decision of the Sumerian court was fully consistent with modern law.
According to the teachings of the Babylonian priests, humans were created from clay to serve the gods. However, the gods themselves were very similar to humans: they arranged their affairs, acted according to circumstances, drank, ate, married, had families, sometimes owned huge farms (entire cities), were subject to human weaknesses and diseases.
Like humans, but with far greater capabilities, the gods were sometimes terrible, and their actions often seemed contradictory and incomprehensible to mere mortals.
Let’s say a few more words about the achievements of the Sumerians, the ancestors of all Babylonian culture. In addition to the first elegies, the first poem about the golden age, their clay tablets contain the first rudiments of historical stories, the world’s oldest medical prescriptions, the first "farmer’s calendar", the first information about protective plantations, the idea of The first fish reserve, the first library catalog.
Riddles and fears, superstition, sorcery and obedience, but sober thought and sober calculation; ingenuity, skills of accurate calculations, generated in the hard work of watering the soil; constant awareness of the dangers of the elements and enemies, along with the desire to fully enjoy life; proximity to nature and the desire to know its secrets – all this has left its mark on Babylonian art.
Like the Egyptian pyramids, the Babylonian ziggurats served as a monumental crown to the entire surrounding architectural ensemble and landscape.