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For example, in our country, a 37-year-old designer Makarov created a pistol for a 9 mm cartridge.

For example, in our country, a 37-year-old designer Makarov created a pistol for a 9 mm cartridge.

The Mauser brothers have released more than 10 models of the K-96 pistol with the only principles of operation of automation, based on the use of recoil energy of the barrel during its short stroke.

The most popular models were 1912 and 1920, and the latter, known as the “police model” differed only in the length of the barrel and handle. By the way, it was bought by our country in 1926-1930, when the Red Army and the Cheka-OGPU troops received up to 30,000 Mausers.

… The first self-loading pistol, which did not show the influence of revolvers, was 123helpme.me designed, as we have already mentioned, by the American Browning, who served at the Belgian “National Military Weapons Factory” in Gerstal (Liege). To reduce its size, Browning placed seven cartridges in a magazine (supplied with a spring to feed them to the barrel line), which was placed in an empty handle, which significantly accelerated the loading process. Simplifying the design, Browning abandoned the use of two springs – combat, for the erection of the drummer before the shot, and rotary, which put in place the shutter that receded after the shot. Instead, he used a single, reverse combat, which with a special lever affected the shutter and drummer. Note that later this principle of automation became the most common among designers of self-loading pistols.

1900 Browning pistol

Caliber – 7.65 mm

Weight without cartridges – 615 m

Length – 163 mm

Magazine capacity – 7 rounds

Aiming range – 50 m \ s

“Browning” turned out compact, successfully placed in the hand, its center of gravity was located optimally, which certainly affected the results of the shooting. In March 1900, the pistols were handed over to officers and non-commissioned officers of the Belgian army and gendarmerie, and the National Military Weapons Factory produced over a million copies over the next 13 years, which quickly spread around the world. Even today, a copy of a 1900 Browning marked Model 64 is made in the DPRK for the army and state security.

Austro-Hungarian pistol of the Manlicher system of 1905 model

Caliber – 7.65 mm

Weight – 1000 m

Weight without cartridges – 620 m

Length – 245 mm

Magazine capacity – 10 rounds

The initial velocity of the bullet is 300 m / s

In the first decade of the 20th century, self-loading pistols appeared in the service of almost all armies of the world. In Europe, gained popularity eight-shot pistol “parabellum”, which translated from Latin means “prepare for war.” It was designed by the Germans Hugo Borchardt and Georg Luger, the operation of automation is based on the same energy of the recoil of the barrel during its short stroke. The 9 mm caliber cartridge was snapped before firing by a system of levers that were adjusted to the “dead point” position, and the large tilt of the handle and the successful position of the weapon in the hand contributed to accurate shooting. The advantage of this gun was that no tools were needed for disassembly and assembly.

German pistol “Parabellum” model 1908

Caliber – 9 mm

Weight without cartridges – 890 m

Length – 217 mm

Magazine capacity – 8 rounds

Beginning in 1901, the Parabellum was adopted by Switzerland, Bulgaria, Portugal, Graz, the Netherlands, Afghanistan, and other countries. At home, in Germany, they were received by officers and non-commissioned officers, and from 1904 machine gunners and sailors, four years later “parabelums” equipped the entire Kaiser’s army. In the Nazi Wehrmacht, such pistols were mostly used by non-commissioned officers and special forces soldiers.

In the United States, the first pistol adopted by the army and navy was the 1911 Colt, developed by Colt Fair Arms Manufacturing engineers who took advantage of many of Browning’s ideas.

Colt pistol model 1911

Caliber -11.43 mm

Weight without cartridges – 1106 m

Length – 216 mm

Magazine capacity – 7 rounds

Aiming range – 700 m

The American pistol was created for very powerful cartridges of 11.43 mm, their 14.8-gram bullet was ejected with a significant initial velocity, which provided a long range of fire and lethal force. Initially, the Colts were used very sparingly in the US Army, but after modernization in 1921 they became the main officer’s weapon. Suffice it to recall that by 1982, US companies produced 418 thousand “Colts” of various modifications.

Japanese pistol “Nambu” model 14 issue of 1925

Caliber – 8 mm

Weight without cartridges – 900 m

Length – 229 mm

Magazine capacity – 8 rounds

… In the period between the two world wars, the main efforts of the designers of self-loading pistols were aimed mainly at further increasing the practical rate of fire.

The next stage in the development of small arms opened the invention of the Czech gunsmith Alois Tomiška self-cocking trigger mechanism. Thanks to him, before the first shot, no additional manipulations were required to load the weapon. It was enough for the shooter to press the trigger, after which the trigger was automatically raised and a shot was fired. Tomiszko created his trigger mechanism before the First World War, but it began to be introduced only in the late 20’s, primarily in German police and army pistols.

For example, in 1929, a police “Walter” was equipped with a self-cocking trigger, and 9 years later a P-38 pistol, which became the main model for officers in the Nazi Wehrmacht. This pistol is still in service with the West German Bundeswehr under the designation P-4. Taking into account the modern requirements for officer weapons, it was modernized, slightly shortened and lightened due to the use of aluminum alloys in the construction of the lungs.

German pistol P-38 system Walter model 1938

Caliber – 9 mm

Weight – 1000 m

Weight without cartridges – 990 m

Length – 212 mm

Magazine capacity – 8 rounds

Aiming range – 50 m

The initial velocity of the bullet is 320 m \ s

In our country, self-loading pistols were first used soon after the end of the civil war. The fact is that despite the excellent combat qualities of the revolver “Nagan” model of 1895, military experts considered more promising pistols as a more rapid-fire officer’s weapon.

Before the revolution in Russia, no one made them and therefore in the course were only imported samples. For this reason, Soviet designers had to start from scratch.

German pistol system “Walter” model 1929

Caliber – 7.65 mm

Weight without cartridges – 690 m

Length – 170 mm

Magazine capacity – 8 rounds

The first domestic model of a self-loading pistol with a 7.65 mm cartridge was proposed by Browning in 1920-1921 by Korovin, who worked on similar weapons and other specialists. However, the greatest success fell to Tokarev.

His TT pistol (Tula, Tokarev) in 1930 was adopted by the Red Army. “Comparing Tokarev’s pistol with the best foreign samples, the commission considers it the most acceptable and suitable for adoption under the conditions:

Increased accuracy Improved sights Increased safety Easier descent

Elimination of other shortcomings noted in the course of the examination “For the operation of automation Tokarev chose the principle of recoil of the barrel with a short stroke, eight 7.62 mm cartridges were laid out in a box magazine, which was inserted from below into the empty handle.

Soviet pistol system Korovina

Caliber – 6.35 mm

Weight without cartridges – 400 m

Length – 127 mm

Magazine capacity – 8 rounds

Aiming devices ensured the defeat of the target from a distance of 25 m. High muzzle energy (product of the mass of the bullet per square of the initial velocity) guaranteed good lethality and penetration. TT lasted in service for more than 20 years, during which time some of its shortcomings were revealed, primarily related to its use in the armored forces, low survivability and failures due to the arbitrary pop-up of the store.

Work on a more elaborate model began in 1938 by Tokarev, Voevodin, Rakiv and Korovyn. Vojvodina’s pistol was a little heavier and larger than the TT, but differed favorably from it in all other characteristics, – wrote Professor Bolotin. – In terms of combat, it was not inferior to such foreign pistols as “Parabelum”, “Webley-Scott” Mauser- “Astra” and in practical rate of fire and initial velocity of the bullet was unmatched. “However, the examination of the Vojvodina pistol was completed in April 1941 and only a small party was released, which was distributed among the top leadership of the Red Army.

Soviet TT pistol system Tokarev model 1933

Caliber – 7.62 mm

Weight – 940 m

Weight without cartridges – 854 m

Length – 195 mm

Magazine capacity – 8 rounds

Aiming range – 50 m

The initial velocity of the bullet is 420 m \ s

During World War II, short-barreled weapons passed a serious test. The systems that withstood it continued to serve, others had to be “retired”. The experience of the war gave rise to new tactical and technical requirements for pistols, in particular, they were more compact, lighter, more reliable and faster. For example, in our country, a 37-year-old designer Makarov created a pistol for a 9 mm cartridge.

The increase in caliber allowed to maintain the same as the TT, lethal force with a significant reduction in the initial velocity of the bullet, which won the accuracy, so necessary for self-defense weapons. The action of PM automation was built on the simplest principle – the return of a free shutter, the use of self-cocking-percussion mechanism allowed the shooter to open fire faster and conduct it with high rate of fire. The use of a short cartridge has reduced the size of the weapon. In 1951, Makarov’s pistol was adopted by the Soviet Army.

Soviet pistol system Makarov model 1951

Caliber – 9 mm

Weight without cartridges – 730 m

Length – 160 mm

Magazine capacity – 8 rounds

Aiming range – 50 m

The initial velocity of the bullet is 315 m / s

Recently, the creators of weapons have increasingly used such innovations as, for example, light alloys and plastics, which were used to make housings, fabrication of barrels by forging instead of the common long-ago drilling, giving the trigger guard shape, which facilitated fire from both hands, spacious, 12-15 charger stores became widespread.

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ahmetgashi

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