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It was more difficult for Zaliznyak than for you: he had to reveal all these rules by reading the manuscript.

It was more difficult for Zaliznyak than for you: he had to reveal all these rules by reading the manuscript.

if on the right there is a "normal" vowel or cleared vowel or b) b and b fall out.

Table 6 shows how these rules work (each line should be read from right to left) 3.

Table 6

It can be seen that as a result of this process, many syllables appeared that end in a consonant: moss, the first syllable is good, etc.

Exercise 2. Check yourself: what words (not necessarily in the initial form) were obtained from the Old Russian words dn, lion, snъ, pisheno, lzhka, almost, flatter, flatter, chtts, Smol’nsk?

And now, after this excursion, let’s fast forward to the XIV century. It was then that the manuscript was written, which, thanks to Zaliznyak, became known as a valuable source of knowledge about stress – a reference book for judges called "The Righteous Measure" (which means "Scales of Justice"). There are no stress marks in the manuscript, but there are two types of o: "closed o", which was denoted by the letter ѡ ("omega") and sounded like a cross between o and y, and "open o", which was denoted by the letter o ("he ») And sounded like a cross between o and a. explanatory synthesis essay examples The closed o arose from the early ancient Russian o (and only from the "usual" o, and not from b) in three cases:

in the initial syllable, which previously ended in a vowel, and after the loss of ъ and ь began to end in a consonant: г (дъ (there was a two-syllable -go-dъ, which turned into a monosyllabic year), tѡch-no (it was to–ch-no); let’s call such a syllable rebuilt;under the autonomous stress: evil (evil), bow (bow);two syllables to the right of the autonomous stress (by the count of syllables after the loss of ъ and ь): possessed (possessed), vinstvo (military).

In other cases, in "Meril", the early Russian o gives an open o: year, gold (-year, -gold – automatic stress, initial syllables end in a vowel), young (young – both unstressed, initial syllable ends in a vowel). If b has turned into o, this is always an open o: moh (m’h) – neither the fact that the initial syllable is rearranged nor automatic stress helps.

Knowing all this, how can we understand the stress of the spelling in the "Meril of the Righteous", despite the fact that there are no stress marks there? For example, we see in "Merila" the word warmth (from the early ancient Russian warmth). Could there be an automatic stress (- warmth)? No, then what then would not appear in the second syllable ѡ. And could there be an autonomous stress on the 1st, 3rd or 4th syllable: heat, warmth, or warmth? And again, no, because ѡ would not appear in the right place: heat and heat would give warmth (check if you understand why in these two cases the spelling will coincide), and heat would not give the letter ѡ at all. Hence, this word had a warm accent, unusual for us today.

And what was the stress in the word old age (from the early ancient Russian old age)? It is not possible to determine exactly, but we have reason to say that there could be an automatic stress (-old) or an autonomous stress on the 1st syllable (age) 4, but not an autonomous stress on the 2nd syllable: from old to “ Merila ”would have turned out to be old. The word gold (from gold) could have an automatic stress (-gold) or an autonomous stress on the 3rd syllable (gold), but not an autonomous stress on the 1st or 2nd syllable (gold would give gold, and gold would give gold ). The word пѡпъ (from pop) can have any stress: if there was -pop, then ѡ will turn out according to the rule about the rearranged syllable, and if there was p поp, then immediately according to two rules – about the rearranged syllable and about the autonomous stress.

It was more difficult for Zaliznyak than for you: he had to reveal all these rules by reading the manuscript. But you can also try to repeat the final part of his discovery and solve this problem.

Problem 3. Let you know the spelling of the word in "Meril the Righteous" (XIV century) and its early Russian spelling, reflecting the pronunciation around 1000. Build an algorithm that allows you to determine which could and which could not be the Old Russian stress in this word. In other words, for a word that is n-complex in “Meril the Righteous”, you need to say whether it could contain: automatic stress; autonomous stress on the 1st, 2nd, …, nth syllable.

So that you can solve this problem not purely speculatively, but on real material, here are a few words in both forms: true (true), we can (we can), live (belly), podbal (befitting), free (free), free (free) ), gold (gold), marine (sea), buried (buried), scroll (svit’k), useful (useful), ash (evil).

Indication. Remember that by the time the "Measure of the Righteous" is written, the letters ъ and ь are no longer read as vowels and there is no need to think about them when determining the stress.

Hint 1. For exactly five of these words, you can accurately determine the Old Russian stress (ie, prove that all stress variants, except one, are impossible).

Tip 2. For exactly three of these words, you can definitely say that the place of stress in them is not the same as in modern Russian.


For almost ten years now, I have carefully kept one sheet of paper. In 2008/09, Zaliznyak gave a course on the history of Russian stress at the Lomonosov Moscow State University and gave a homework assignment – what I just suggested to you as problem 3. After checking my work, he corrected one typo and wrote:

Since then, reading the books and articles of Andrei Anatolyevich himself and listening to his lectures, I always thought and continue to think that these words first of all characterize not my homework, but himself and everything that he did. Fine. Impeccably.

The ending. The beginning is in the previous issue.


Problem 2. The endings of nouns differ depending on gender and case:

The endings of adjectives differ depending on the gender: husband. -yet, wives. -those. A noun or adjective definition is placed after the word being defined. Between the defined and the definition, a "small word" must be placed, consistent with the defined in gender and case. "Small words":

Answer to task 1: the horse of the queen’s niece – kalë i mbesës së mbretëreshës; weak girl – vayzë e hajthme.

The answer to task 2 is actually given above.

Exercise 1: you- ↓, -mog- →, -we- ↓, -ji- -, -a ↓, -and -.

Exercise 2: day, lion, sleep, millet, spoon, honor, flatter, flattery, reader, Smolensk.

Problem 3

Step 1 (classification of omegas). Let us divide all letters ѡ into two classes: free ѡ and non-free ѡ. Let us call non-free such ѡ, which are in the 1st rearranged syllable, and free – all the rest.

Step 2 (initial generation of variants). If there is at least one free ѡ in the "Meril" record, the word can only have an autonomous stress on the syllable with the leftmost free ѡ or two syllables to the left (if there is such a syllable). If there is not a single free слов in a word, the word can have any stress (automatic or autonomous on any syllable).

Step 3 (limiting opportunities). If the "Merila" record contains at least one letter o in place of the early ancient Russian o, for each such letter from the possibilities obtained in step 2, you should exclude the autonomous stress on this syllable and two syllables to the left (if there is such a syllable).

Let’s consider a few examples (see table).

The stress in the words м́жемъ, liveѡ́тъ, subѡ́balѡ, free and -gold is uniquely determined. In the words podѡbalѡ and free the stress differs from the modern one (befitting and free); in the word -freedom, we cannot unambiguously define the stress, but in any case it is different from the modern free *.

Problems 1 and 2 by A. A. Zaliznyak, with some changes in the presentation of solutions, are reproduced from the collection: V. I. Belikov, E. V. Muravenko, M. E. Alekseev (editor-in-chief). Problems of Linguistic Olympiads (Moscow: MTsNMO, 2006); Problems 180 and 139. Problem 3 was not published in this form, but in different years it was offered orally (without a limited list of examples) to the students of the course on the history of Russian stress. Examples were taken by me from the digitized manuscript "Merilo Righteous" and from the work of AA Zaliznyak "Opposition of the letters o and ѡ in the ancient Russian manuscript of the XIV century" Merilo Righteous "(1978).

* From other sources it is known that in fact there was an accent – free.

1 This pattern was discovered even before Zaliznyak and is often called the Havlik law in honor of the Czech linguist Antonin Havlik (1855–1925).

2 b continues to persist in writing until 1918, and b in many cases to this day, denoting the softness of the consonant.

3 The consonant that stood before the dropped out sometimes retains its softness (golub, byehfor), and sometimes not (wellfbut, thosembut, wvec). For our presentation, this question is irrelevant.

4 Of course, if for a word we got several stress variants, this does not mean that they all actually met: most likely, only one of them was used, but we cannot reliably determine which one by spelling.

Academician Andrey Anatolyevich Zaliznyak"Science and Life" No. 12, 2008

The text of the lecture is published in an abridged journal version.The full video of the lecture can be viewed on the website. We highly recommend it.

Andrey Anatolyevich Zaliznyak at the blackboard during a lecture at Moscow State University

Archaeological excavations in ancient Novgorod, which have been conducted for many years under the leadership of Academician V.L. relationships between people, and, of course, linguistic issues (see "Science and Life" No. 3, 2006). And every autumn for more than twenty years at Moscow State University, a well-known linguist A.A.Zaliznyak, a specialist in the field of modern and historical grammar of the Russian language, comparative and general linguistics, chief researcher at the Institute of Slavic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a teacher of the philological faculty of Moscow State University, has been giving a public lecture. He devotes his now traditional lecture to deciphering the birch bark letters found in the new season. The listeners – and these are not only students and postgraduate students-linguists, but also researchers from other departments, and just everyone who is interested in looking into the distant past – become participants in an excitingly interesting process: without rejecting the decoding options offered from the audience, Andrei Anatolyevich, together with the audience analyzes why it is impossible to accept this or that interpretation, and brings those present to the correct answer. We invite the readers of the magazine, together with the audience of the lecture, to walk this path.

In the current archaeological season, 12 birch bark letters have been found in Novgorod. We can afford to make out not everything, but selected letters, which in itself is a sign of some abundance. We will move from small letters to large ones.

Diploma No. 973 (the last in this season), found at the Borisoglebsk excavation site (XIII century), is a good task. The Dutch Slavic scholar Willem Vermeer formulated the following principle: if nine letters remain from the letter, then at least one word must come to light. This is not always the case, but his assumption, as life shows, works. Letter number 973 contains exactly nine letters:

In this case, before us is not a fragment, but a complete text. The document clearly reached us in full: a thorough examination of the birch bark showed that the text did not go further in any of the four directions.

The expeditionary jokers suggested that Ge should be considered an abbreviation for Genya; then it is enough to assume that the third letter from the end is a slip of the tongue instead of and, and we will get … the owner’s inscription of Eugene Onegin: Ge. Onegin.

But seriously, the initial geon cannot be separated from the ancient Russian geon ‘Gehenna, hell, hell’. This is a natural Russian correspondence to the Greek word géenna with the replacement of e at the beginning of the syllable by o – the same as in Olga from Helga, Olena from Elena, etc. What follows from this assumption?

The well-known combination ‘Gehenna fire’ suggests itself: anyone who dealt with the old texts met the stable Old Russian combination Geon fire (or with the reverse word order). It is impossible to discern the word geon in our literacy, but instead of it there could be a possessive adjective geon (‘gehennin belonging to gehenna’), written as geon, with the replacement of b by e. there is a possessive adjective adov from a closely related word ad (both hell and gehenna are often depicted in old texts as animate entities).

Let us interpret the geone segment. But what is the remainder of the rut?

From the audience: This is fire (= fire due to the replacement of b by e) with a random rearrangement of the letters r and o.

A.Z .: Permutation of vowel and consonant is extremely rare, permutation by slip is almost always permutation of consonants.

From the audience: E after geon means here [o] after a soft consonant, that is, equal to modern e; all together one must read geonogon = geon fire.

A.Z .: One should already agree with this. Old Russian e could, in certain cases, be read as modern e. Geonyogon is a kind of concatenation of two words. Before us is not a simple text, but a kind of "magic word", a kind of small "conspiracy", a spell. It is possible, for example, that some well-wisher put it under the house of a neighbor. A non-standard way of writing (in this case, a "spliced" notation of two words) could be in such cases one of the techniques that increase the magical power of the written.

The text of such a structure was found among the letters for the first time.

The next letter No. 968 (the first half of the 14th century, perhaps even the beginning), also small, is from an excavation at the archbishop’s court (which also corresponds to its content) in the Novgorod Kremlin. This snippet is the middle line of the original letter.

Usually, these kinds of scraps do little. Let’s see how our investigation ends this time.

There are a little more than nine letters here. With the exception of … dow, which is not entirely clear, the rest is quite understandable: ‘tell the lord how …’ … What is the how? How was it, how did it happen, what should be done or something like that?

What was the end of the initial-do?

From the audience: The truth!

AZ: We, in Novgorod, of course, also at the first moment assumed that this was the truth (or the truth). Alas, in this decision everything is fine, except for one thing: the word truth at that time did not mean the truth! It meant legal proceedings in the court, and “speaking it” is almost impossible.

There are several acceptable interpretations, but the most probable option seems to me to be an insult (or about an insult); this is extremely reminiscent of the letter of the 12th century No. 725, where it also informs the archbishop about the “offense”: … the rulers will take my offense. And here we have exactly the same combination, and without a pro – with a direct addition.

It would seem that the analysis of the literacy is over … But no! The most interesting thing here is not-do, but the most banal word, on which the modern reader is unlikely to even stop his eyes at all. Meanwhile, the word speak turns out to be an outstanding element of the text – a gift for the history of the Russian language.

In this literacy, the verb to speak means exactly the same as in the modern language – ‘dicere’ (that is, precisely ‘to speak’): one person (by speech) communicates something to another person. Such a meaning was not always attached to the word speak. Previously, it had a completely different meaning. In previously found birch bark letters, this verb was found in the same modern meaning only four times.



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