K.: In “Wave-Press” 1995. Internal economic mechanism of the enterprise: textbook.
K.: In “Wave-Press” 1995. Internal economic mechanism of the enterprise: textbook.
The company must ensure the safety of production, sanitary and hygienic standards and requirements for the protection of the health of its employees, population and consumers.
Control over certain aspects of the enterprise is carried out by:
state tax administration, tax police, state bodies entrusted with the supervision of safety of production, labor, fire and environmental safety, other bodies specified by the legislation of Ukraine.
The company operates on the basis of the Charter, which is approved by the owner of the property, and for state-owned enterprises – also with the participation of labor.
The charter of the enterprise defines: the owner and full name of the enterprise, its location, subject and purpose of activity, governing bodies and the order of their formation, competence and powers of the labor collective and its elected bodies, the order of property formation, conditions of reorganization and termination of the enterprise.
The charter may include provisions: on labor relations; about powers, the order of creation and structure of council of the enterprise; about a trademark, etc.
Zadoya AA, Tkachenko IP “Structure and functions of the modern financial market” // Finance of Ukraine No. 5.1999. Pavlyuk KV “Financial resources of the state. Monograph.” – Kyiv: Nios, 1998. Palamarchuk VO “Financial foundations of the state” // Finance of Ukraine No. 2.1999. Economics of the enterprise: Textbook / Edited by prof. SF Pokropivny. -K .: In “Wave-Press” 1995. Internal economic mechanism of the enterprise: textbook. manual. / Edited by MG Greshchak – K.: KNEU, 2001. Rudenko AI Strategic planning at the enterprise. CF KIEU. Simferopol, 1997. Samoukin AI Potential of intangible production – M .: Knowledge, 1991. Etymological dictionary of the Russian language. / Ed. Shainskogo NM. – M., 1994. Dictionary of foreign words. / Ed. Vasyukova. – M., 1972. Dictionary of the Russian language. / Ed. Ozhegova SI – M., 1984. The Big Soviet Encyclopedia. / Ed. Vvedensky BA vol. 34.
Securities market: essence and functions. Abstract
Characteristics of securities market relations. History of the securities market. Functions of the securities market
Privatization and corporatization of private property, development of entrepreneurship and credit institutions lead to a deepening of the development of monetary and credit relations. There is a special sector of the economy, which is associated with the circulation of securities – the financial market.
The financial market can be divided into two parts: the bank loan market and the securities market. The securities market complements the system of bank credit and interacts with it. A commercial bank rarely issues loans for a long time (more than a year). Securities make it possible to obtain funds for a long period (for decades – bonds) or for indefinite use (shares).
Before moving on to the actual securities, it is necessary to dwell on the concept of fictitious capital, because it is the movement of fictitious capital and is the basis for the functioning of the stock market and the existence of securities as such. Fictitious capital is a social relationship, the essence of which is its ability to capture some of the added value.
Historically, the basis of fictitious capital was the separation of borrowed capital from production and the formation of the credit system, and the technical separation of fictitious capital from real occurred on the basis of borrowed capital, resulting in the owner of borrowed capital remains the title …
Thus, fictitious capital is manifested in the form of the title of property, able to enter into circulation, and moreover able to circulate relatively independently of the movement of real capital. Really fictitious capital mediates the processes of capital movement, distribution and redistribution of profits, as well as redistribution of national profits through the system of public finance.
A security is a document that expresses the related property and non-property rights, can circulate independently in the market and be the object of purchase and sale and other transactions, serves as a source of regular or one-time income. Thus, securities are a kind of money capital, the movement of which mediates the further distribution of tangible assets.
In the past, securities existed only in physically tangible, paper form and were printed by printing on special paper forms. Securities are usually made with a fairly high degree of protection against possible counterfeiting. Recently, due to a significant increase in the turnover of securities, many of them began to be issued in the form of entries in the books of account, as well as on various media, ie moved to a physically intangible (not paper) form.
Therefore, both the actual securities and their substitutes are issued, traded and extinguished on the securities market. Objects of operations in the securities market are also called securities market instruments, funds (in the sense of monetary funds) or stock values.
The current stage of the formation of the securities market is characterized by a significant growth rate of the issue of securities, a constant increase in the number of economic entities that act as issuers. Thus, it is clear that this area of market relations is very important, complex and relevant. For today.
Characteristics of securities market relations
In economic theory, a special place is occupied by the question of production relations as a social form of development of productive forces. They are relations concerning the appropriation of the means of production and products of labor (thus acting as relations of ownership, means of production and products of labor), they also include relations arising from the issue and purchase and sale of securities. The issue of shares and partially bonds mediates the appropriation of means of production, the payment of dividends and interest reflect the distribution of value added, and the purchase and sale of securities – its redistribution.
The securities market covers both credit relations and co-ownership relations, which are revealed through the issuance of special documents (securities that have their own value and can be sold, bought and repaid). The securities market complements the system of bank credit and interacts with it.
The essence of the securities market is determined by the laws of development of capitalist society, such as the general law of capitalist accumulation, the law of the tendency of the rate of return to decline, the law of supply, demand and others. The downward trend in the rate of return contributes to the emergence of surplus capital, the investment of which in the real process is not visible from the point of view of individual capital, due to its limited object. The owners of such capital are forced to lend it at the usual interest rate, the figure of which is below the figure of the average rate of return.
This contradiction can be resolved by establishing joint-stock companies, which, on the one hand, allow to raise together a sufficient amount of capital for profitable operation, and on the other hand – give their owners hope for dividends that will be more interest payments on similar capital. However, investors carry a certain risk, firstly, that the financial results of the company may be below average or they may go bankrupt, and secondly, with the possibility of increasing interest rates.
The increase in surplus capital as the organic structure of capital grows as a result of scientific and technological progress leads to a constant increase in fictitious capital, which is the title of ownership of real and loan capital.
K. Marx wrote: “Shares and all kinds of various other securities are the essence of the sphere of investment for borrowed capital, for capital intended to yield interest. They are the form of its return on loan. But they do not represent the borrowed capital that is invested in them. “/ 5 – item 25. –h. II. -Page 20-21 /.
Securities, being the titles of ownership of real capital, form a kind of duplicate, the shadow of this capital, thus absorbing the excess capital, the value of which is relative to all real capital. On the one hand, shares form the initial capital of a joint-stock company, and on https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ the other – do not have a direct impact on its activities. K. Marx noted in this regard: “They become nominal representatives of non-existent capital” / 5. – v. 25. – Part II – p. 19 /.
The capital paid for the shares has long been used to buy the means of production, the objects of labor, and the owner of the share continues to receive income from the profits resulting from the operation of real capital associated with the original share capital only by origin.
The securities market, like any other market, consists of supply, demand and the price that compares them. The law of supply and demand determines the price of securities in the market, which may deviate from their value, which is determined by the dividend and loan interest. K. Marx wrote in this regard that “the value of their value can increase and decrease regardless of the movement of the value of real capital, the titles of which they are” / 5. – t 25 – h. II – s. 19 /. Demand is created by companies and the state, which do not have enough income to finance investments.
Business and government are net borrowers in the securities market (the majority of them borrow more than they lend), and net creditors are mainly the population, the private sector, whose income for various reasons exceeds consumption expenditures and investment in tangible assets. assets. The main component of the securities market is the very concept of “security”.
“A security is a document that reflects the related property rights, can independently be in circulation in the securities market and be the object of purchase and sale and other transactions, is a source of regulatory or one-time income, acts as a kind of money capital. “
History of the securities market
Securities have been known since the late Middle Ages.