This is the first medical report that has come down to us about Shevchenko’s death.
This is the first medical report that has come down to us about Shevchenko’s death.
He was not afraid of anything, did not shy away from anything. He admitted mistakes because he was wrong. He had a stubborn, crazy and incredibly honest soul.
Poems by V. Saussure, M. Rylsky, and V. Stefanyk were dedicated to him – the short story “Network”.
Two months after the funeral, his grave was destroyed and only recently found.
Reading his biography, we are convinced that ethan frome chapter 3 and 4 summary he believed that we, his future readers, would understand him.
Taras Shevchenko: life story. Abstract
Taras Shevchenko! … This name shines like a precious pearl in the golden treasury of world culture
In the glorious constellation of immortal classics of literature, the genius singer of the Ukrainian people rightly stands in line with such titans of thought and word as Homer and Shakespeare, Pushkin and Tolstoy, Goethe and Byron, Schiller and Heine, Balzac and Hugo, Mickiewicz and Burns, Rustaveli Nizami, whose artistic heritage has become the property of all advanced humanity.
Taras Shevchenko is a symbol of honesty, truth and fearlessness, great love for people. All the works of the great Kobzar are warmed by a passionate love for the Motherland, imbued with a sacred hatred for the enemies and oppressors of the people. His thoughts, his songs, his fiery anger, his struggle for the bright destiny of the working people were the thoughts, songs, anger and struggle of millions.
All nations love Shevchenko’s poetry. The poet, who gave all his strength to the struggle for the liberation of his native Ukraine from social and national oppression, expressed the aspirations and hopes of all peoples, all progressive people of the world.
Taras Shevchenko lived very little – only 47 years. Of these, he spent 34 years in captivity: 24 years – under the yoke of serfdom and more than 10 years – in the harshest conditions of exile. And the rest – 13 “free” years was under the watchful eye of the gendarmes.
Looking at the life lived, full of terrible weather and poverty, he said with pain: “How many years lost., How many flowers withered!”
Condemning the tsarist regime, which ruined the life of the great poet, MO Nekrasov in his poem “On the death of Shevchenko” wrote:
He knew everything: the St. Petersburg prison, Inquiries, denunciations, courtesies of kindness, Everything – and the divided steppe of Orenburg, And its fortress … In need, in the unknown There, insulted by every ignoramus, He lived as a soldier with poor soldiers, He could die, of course, under sticks, Maybe he lived with this hope.
It was not the first time that the tsarist government dealt with such undesirable advanced people. An ardent singer of freedom, Taras Shevchenko shared the sad fate of the best people who lived during the tsarist reaction. Pushkin and Lermontov, killed at the urging of the tsar, tortured Polezhaev, the Decembrists, who died in Siberia in hard labor, were his predecessors. The fate of his contemporaries was not better.
Chaadaev was declared insane. Herzen had to flee abroad. The great Russian critic Vissarion Belinsky was saved from the casemate only by death. Saltykov-Shchedrin was exiled, and Dostoevsky was sent to hard labor.
But neither arrests and brutal persecution, nor damp and dark casemates of Division III. Neither exile nor soldiering – no oppression could bend the poet-revolutionary Taras Shevchenko.
I am punished, I suffer … but I do not repent! –
he wrote in the poem “O my thoughts!”.
Shevchenko said that he would never deviate from the path once and for all chosen, from the path of a folk singer:
I will not be sold to anyone, I will not be hired.
Without bending the great Kobzar spiritually, tsarism broke him physically. Despite the fact that Shevchenko was “endowed with a strong body structure” as stated in the sentence of exile, the tsarist satraps caused irreparable damage to his health, criminally shortened his life and accelerated his death.
Below is the certificate found in the funds of the Central State Historical Archive in St. Petersburg. This is the first medical report that has come down to us about Shevchenko’s death. Until now, there was no accurate medical data on the circumstances of the illness and death of the poet.
This is due to the fact that Academician Taras Shevchenko, 49 years old, has long been obsessed with organic disorders of the liver and heart (vitium heparis et cordis) recently developed water sickness (hydrops), from which he died on February 26. S . -Petersburg, February 26, 1861.
Original signed by: Dr. Edward Bari.
Resident at St. Mary Magdalene Hospital.
The authenticity of this copy with the original testimony of Edward Bari is evidenced by the seal of the police of the Imperial Academy of Arts. February 27, 1861.
The police chief of the Academy is Captain I rank Nabatov.
Below on the certificate – a pencil mark: “47 years from birth” – an amendment to the age of Taras Shevchenko, erroneously indicated by a doctor.
This medical certificate of the poet’s latest illness, written by Dr. Eduard Yakovlevich Bari, who supervised Taras Hryhorovych, allows us to understand the full depth of the irreparable damage caused to the naturally healthy health of Shevchenko by his crowned and uncrowned executioners. Modern medical science makes it possible to clarify the diagnosis established in 1861 by Dr. E. Ya. Bari, and to formulate it as follows: Taras Grigorovich’s death was an organic decompensated heart disease of the third degree, cirrhosis of the liver and ascites.
The documents found in the state archives now allow us to investigate in detail and scientifically substantiate all the circumstances of the course of Taras Shevchenko’s illness and death. They prove once again that the death of the genius folk poet was premature. It was conditioned and accelerated by tsarism.
It is known that Shevchenko was the son of a peasant-serf and he was a serf. The father and mother of the great poet died prematurely from overwork, deprivation and disease. The same fate awaited Taras Shevchenko. Remaining at the age of eleven a round orphan, he soon suffered the unbearable burden of forced labor, felt the grief of the “poor unsmiling man.”
Shevchenko lived in extremely difficult conditions, was very poor, often starved and sick.
In the spring of 1837, when 23-year-old Taras worked for the house painter V. Shiryaev as a serf of the landowner Engelgard, he became seriously ill. Shevchenko’s compatriot and friend, the artist Ivan Maksymovych Soshenko, immediately put Taras, who was grazing with heat, in bed and urgently called his acquaintance, doctor Zhadovtsev. The doctor carefully examined the sick Shevchenko and told Soshenko:
– The patient must be sent to the hospital, because with your money you can not treat fever at home.
But the hospital was not cheap treatment. The stingy Shiryaev did not give a single penny, although the contract signed by him provided that in case of illness of a student during the training period, the master is obliged to treat him at his own expense.
Taras’s friends had to petition the Committee of the Society for the Promotion of Artists. On this occasion, in the report of the Society dated May 30, 1837, it was noted: “Pensioner Alekseev and student Shevchenko for medicine … 50 rubles.” With this money, doctor Zhadovtsev and artist Soshenko placed Taras in the St. Petersburg City Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene (now the Vira Slutskaya Hospital), near the Tuchkov Bridge.
Shevchenko’s friends chose this hospital not by chance. Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene was the newest medical institution at the time. It was famous for its exceptional order, cleanliness and comfort, new and most advanced treatments. Here “at that time the most perfect operations were performed, new improved methods of bandaging and treatment of wounds were used, recognized by the experience of recent years as the most useful” – it is said in “Essay on the existence of St. Mary Magdalene Hospital in St. Petersburg for 50 years, 1829 – 1879 “.
The pride of the hospital were its doctors and, first of all, the staff doctor Oleksandr Dmytrovych Blank, who worked here during those years, Lenin’s maternal grandfather. He was described by all as “an advanced man, ideological, strong and independent, free from any careerism and servitude.”
OD Blank was an advanced and progressive physician for his time. All his daily activities were imbued with a sensitive and caring attitude towards ordinary people, he selflessly served the people with his medical art.
… Shevchenko’s illness began with an acute febrile condition. In the autobiographical story “The Artist” Taras Hryhorovych describes these difficult days of his illness, when he was thrown into a feverish delirium, burning with unbearable heat. The disease lasted a long time and was severe. For eight days Taras was in a frenzy, between life and death. Friends came to the hospital every day, and sometimes several times a day, to find out about Shevchenko’s condition.
The famous Russian artist Karl Bryullov, with whom Soshenko had met Taras Grigorovich not long before, constantly asked Shevchenko’s friends about the patient’s condition. Good treatment, careful care and, as Shevchenko himself wrote, “young health took its toll … as that fabulous notorious hero came to life and grew stronger not by the day, but by the hour … Some week after the two- week fever he got to his feet and walked, holding on to his bed. “
When the poet was discharged from the hospital, the senior doctor “hygienically, as Taras Shevchenko writes, explained to me that for the final cure it is necessary to stay under medical supervision for at least a month.”
In the autumn of 1839, Shevchenko became seriously ill again. This time for typhus. A friend of the poet FP Ponomarev transported Taras Grigorovich to his room, with mezzanines, to the building of the Academy of Arts. “On these mezzanines,” Ponomarev recalled, “my poor Taras was during his serious illness, which took away our meager money. At the same time, he painted his portrait with oil paints.”
In the autumn of 1845, Shevchenko in Pereyaslav suffered for a long time from fever, which one of his biographers O. Ya. Konisky calls “a kind of typhoid disease.” The writer and ethnographer OS Chuzhbynsky tells in his memoirs about Shevchenko that Taras Hryhorovych suffered a “fever” in Pereyaslav.
It was during this period that Taras Hryhorovych wrote his famous “Testament” (“When I die, bury me”).
Despite the difficult living conditions, the deterioration of his health, Taras Hryhorovych did not lose his love for life, for painting, for poetry. He was especially sensitive to the perception of beautiful Ukrainian nature. The colorful landscapes of the native land – the “cherry orchard near the house”, the mighty gray Dnieper, wide steppes with blackened graves on them, winds smelling of stalk and mint, the overflowing brilliance of feather grass, endless horizons – all this Taras knew and loved.